Sunday, November 27, 2011

Capital: Volume 1, Chapters 31-33 by Karl Marx

Chapter 31: The Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist

  1. "the Middle Ages had handed down two distinct forms of capital, which ripened in the most varied economic formations of society, and which, before the era of the capital mode of production, nevertheless functioned as capital -- usurer's capital and merchant's capital." - 914
  2. "The money capital formed by means of usury and commerce was prevented from turning into industrial capital by the feudal organization of the countryside and the guild organization of the towns. These fetters vanished with the dissolution of the feudal bands of retainers, and the expropriation and partial eviction of the rural population." - 915
  3. "Today, industrial supremacy brings with it commercial supremacy. In the period of manufacture it is the reverse: commercial supremacy produces industrial predominance. Hence the preponderant role played by the colonial system at that time...It proclaimed the making of profit as the ultimate and the sole purpose of mankind." - 918
  4. "The only part of the so-called national wealth that actually enters into the collective possession of a modern nation is -- the national debt." - 919
  5. "Colonial system, public debts, heavy taxes, protection, commercial wars, etc., these offshoots of the period of infancy of large-scale industry. The birth of the latter is celebrated by a vast, Herod-like slaughter of innocents." - 922
Chapter 32: The Historical Tendency of Capitalist Accumulation

  1. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principe d'economie politique, "We are in a situation which is entirely new for society...we are striving to separate every kind of property from every kind of labour" - 928, notes
  2. "The centralization of the means of production and the socialization of labour reach a point at which they become incompatible with their capitalist integument. This integument is burst asunder. The knell of capitalist private property sounds. The expropriators are expropriated." - 929
Chapter 33: The Modern Theory of Colonization

  1. "Political economy confuses, on principle, two different kinds of private property, one of which rests on the labour of the producer himself, and the other on the exploitation of the labour of others." - 931
  2. "Where the capitalist has behind him the power of the mother country, he tries to use force to clear out of the way the modes of production and appropriation which rest on the personal labour of the independent producer." - 931
  3. "capital is not a thing, but a social relation between persons which is mediated through things." - 932
  4. "So long, therefore, as the worker can accumulate for himself -- and this he can do so long as he remains in possession of his means of production -- capitalist accumulation and the capitalist mode of production are impossible." - 933
  5. "the social dependence of the worker on the capitalist, which is indispensable, is secured. At home, in the mother country, the smug deceitfulness of the political economist can turn this relation of absolute dependence into a free contract between buyer and seller" - 935
  6. "the capitalist mode of production and accumulation, and therefore capitalist private property as well, have for their fundamental condition the annihilation of that private property which rests on the labour of the individual himself, in other words, the expropriation of the worker." - 940

Capital: Volume 1, Chapters 26-30 by Karl Marx

Chapter 26: The Secret of Primitive Accumulation

  1. "This primitive accumulation plays approximately the same role in political economy as original sin does in theology...from this original sin dates the poverty of the great majority who, despite all their labour, have up to now nothing to sell but themselves, and the wealth of the few that increases constantly, although they have long ceased to work. Such insipid childishness is every day preached to us in the defence of property." - 873-4
  2. "So-called primitive nothing else than the historical process of divorcing the producer from the means of production. It appears as 'primitive' because it forms the pre-history of capital, and of the mode of production corresponding to capital." - 875
Chapter 27: The Expropriation of the Agricultural Population from the Land

  1. "We must never forget that  even the serf was not only the owner of the piece of land attached to his house, although admittedly he was merely a tribute-paying owner, but also a co-proprietor of the common land." - 877, notes
  2. "A mass of 'free' and unattached proletarians was hurled onto the labour market by the dissolution of the bands of feudal retainers...the great feudal lords...created an incomparably larger proletariat by forcibly driving the peasantry from the land, to which the latter had the same feudal title as the lords themselves, and by usurpation of the common lands." - 878
  3. "the new landed aristocracy was the natural ally of the new bankocracy, of newly hatched high finance, and of the large manufacturers, at that time dependent on protective duties." - 885
  4. "The last great process of expropriation of the agricultural population from the soil is, finally, the so-called 'clearing of estates', i.e. the sweeping of human beings off them." - 889
  5. "The spoliation of the Church's property, the fraudulent alienation of the state domains, the theft of common lands, the usurpation of feudal and clan property and its transformation into modern private property under circumstances of ruthless terrorism, all these things were just so many idyllic methods of primitive accumulation. They conquered the field for capitalist agriculture, incorporated the soil into capital, and created for the urban industries the necessary supplies of free and rightless proletarians." - 895
Chapter 28: Bloody Legislation against the Expropriated since the End of the Fifteenth Century. The Forcing Down of Wages by Act of Parliament

  1. "Edward VI: A statute of the first year of his reign, 1547, ordains that if anyone refuses to work, he shall be condemned as a slave to the person who has denounced him as an idler." - 897
  2. "Elizabeth, 1572: Unlicensed beggars above 14 years of age are to be severely flogged and branded on the left ear unless someone will take them into service for two years" - 897-8
  3. "The rising bourgeoisie needs the power of the state and uses it to 'regulate' wages, i.e. to force them into the limits suitable for making a profit, to lengthen the working day, and to keep the worker himself at his normal level of dependence. This is an essential aspect of so-called primitive accumulation." - 899-900
  4. "Workers' combinations are treated as heinous crimes from the fourteenth century until 1825, the year of the repeal of the laws against combinations. The spirit of the Statute of Labourers of 1349 and its offshoots shines out clearly in the fact that while the state certainly dictates a maximum of wages, it on no account fixes a minimum." - 901
Chapter 29: The Genesis of the Capitalist Farmer

  1. "This form [sharecropping] disappears quickly in England, and gives place to the form of the farmer properly so called, who valorizes his own capital by employing wage-labourers, and pays a part of the surplus product, in money or in kind, to the landlord as ground rent." - 905
Chapter 30: Impact of the Agricultural Revolution on Industry. The Creation of a Home Market for Industrial Capital

  1. "The spindles and looms, formerly scattered over the face of the countryside, are now crowded together in a few great labour-barracks" - 909
  2. David Urquhart, Familiar Words as Affecting England and the English, "Twenty pounds of wool converted unobtrusively into the yearly clothing of a labourer's family by its own industry in the intervals of other work -- this makes no show; but bring it to market, send it to the factory, thence to the broker, thence to the dealer, and you will have great commercial operations, and nominal capital engaged to the amount of twenty times its value...The working class is thus amerced to support a wretched factory population, a parasitical shop-keeping class, and a fictitious commercial, monetary, and financial system." - 911, notes

Capital: Volume 1, Chapter 25 by Karl Marx

Chapter 25: The General Law of Capitalist Accumulation

- A growing demand for labour-power accompanies accumulation if the composition of capital remains the same

  1. "I call the value-composition of capital ['the mass of the means of production'], in so far as it is determined by its technical composition [necessary labour for employment of the means of production] and mirrors the changes in the latter, the organic composition of capital." - 762
  2. "The reproduction of labour-power which must incessantly be re-incorporated into capital as its means of valorization, which cannot get free of capital, and whose enslavement to capital is only concealed by the variety of the individual capitalists to who it sells itself, forms, in fact, a factor in the reproduction of capital itself. Accumulation of capital is therefore multiplication of the proletariat." - 763-4, emphasis mine
  3. Bernard de Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, "it is the interest of all rich nations, that the greatest part of the poor should almost never be idle, and yet continually spend what they is manifest, that, in a free nation, where slaves are not allowed of, the surest wealth consists in a multitude of laborious poor;...To make the society happy and people easier under the meanest circumstances, it is requisite that great numbers of them should be ignorant as well as poor; knowledge both enlarges and multiplies our desires, and the fewer things a man wishes for, the more easily his necessities are supplied." - 765
  4. "Just as man is governed, in religion, by the products of his own brain, so, in capitalist production, he is governed by the products of his own hand." - 772
- A relative diminution of the variable part of capital occurs in the course of the further progress of accumulation and of the concentration accompanying it
  1. accumulation increases as constant capital increases and variable capital decreases - 774
  2. "Capital grows to a huge mass in a single hand in one place, because it has been lost by many in another place. This is centralization proper, as distinct from accumulation and concentration." - 777
- The progressive production of a relative surplus population or industrial reserve army
  1. "With the growth of the total capital, its variable constituent, the labour incorporated in it, does admittedly increase, but in a constantly diminishing fact it is capitalist accumulation itself that constantly produces, and produces indeed in direct relation with its own energy and extent, a relatively redundant working population, i.e. a population which is superfluous to capital's average requirements for its own valorization, and is therefore  a superfluous population." - 782
  2. "The working population therefore produces both the accumulation of capital and the means by which it is itself made relatively superfluous; and it does this to an extent which is always increasing." - 783
  3. "there must be the possibility of suddenly throwing great masses of men into the decisive areas without doing any damage to the scale of production in other spheres. The surplus population supplies these masses." - 785
  4. "The condemnation of one part of the working class to enforced idleness by the overwork of the other part, and vice versa, becomes a means of enriching the individual capitalists" - 789
- Different forms of existence of the relative surplus population. The general law of capitalist accumulation
  1. "The greater the social wealth, the functioning capital, the extent and energy of its growth, and therefore also the greater the absolute mass of the proletariat and the productivity of its labour, the greater is the industrial reserve army...The relative mass of the industrial reserve army thus increases with the potential energy of wealth...This is the absolute general law of capitalist accumulation." - 798
  2. Ortes, 18th century Venetian monk, "In the economy of a nation, advantages and evils always balance each other:...the abundance of wealth with some people is always equal to the lack of wealth with others...The great riches of a small number are always accompanied by the absolute deprivation of the essential necessities of life for many others. The wealth of a nation corresponds with its population, and its misery corresponds with its wealth." - 800
- Illustrations of the general law of capitalist accumulation
  1. 1846: "the introduction of the free-trade millennium" - 802
  2. "If the extremes of poverty have not lessened, they have increased, because the extremes of wealth have." - 806
  3. "The intimate connection because the pangs of hunger suffered by the most industrious layers of the working class, and the extravagant consumption, coarse or refined, of the rich, for which capitalist accumulation is the basis, is only uncovered when the economic laws are known." - 811
  4. "Nomadic labour is used for various building and draining works, for brick-making, lime-burning, railway-making, etc. A flying column of pestilence, it carries smallpox, typhus, cholera and scarlet fever into the places in whose neighborhood it pitches its camp." - 818
  5. "In the construction of the cottages, only one point of view is of significance, the 'abstinence' of the capitalist from all expenditure that is not absolutely unavoidable." - 820
  6. Dr. Julian Hunter, Public Health, Seventh Report, 1865, "The cost of the hind [i.e. agricultural labourer] is fixed at the lowest possible amount on which he can live...the supplies of wages and shelter are not calculated on the profit to be derived from him. He is a zero in farming calculations." - 834
  7. "There are always too many agricultural labourers for the ordinary needs of cultivation, and too few for exceptional and temporary requirements." - 849
  8. "Ireland is at present merely an agricultural district of England which happens to be divided by a wide stretch of water from the country for which it provides corn, wool, cattle and industrial  and military recruits." - 860
  9. "The uncertainty and irregularity of employment, the constant return and long duration of gluts of labour, are all symptoms of a relative surplus population" - 866

Capital: Volume 1, Chapters 23-24 by Karl Marx

Chapter 23: Simple Reproduction

  1. "The economic character of capitalist becomes firmly fixed to a man only if his money constantly functions as capital." - 711
  2. "surplus-value acquires the form of a revenue arising out of capital. If this revenue serves the capitalist only as a fund to provide for his consumption, and if it is consumed as periodically as it is gained, then, other things being equal, simple reproduction takes place." - 712
  3. "When a person consumes the whole of his property, by taking upon himself debts equal to the value of that property, it is clear that his property represents nothing but the sum total of his debts. And so it is with the capitalist; when he has consumed the equivalent of his original capital, the value of his present capital represents nothing but the total amount of surplus-value appropriated by him without payment. Not a single atom of the value of his old capital continues to exist." - 715
  4. "The fact that the worker performs acts of individual consumption in his own interest, and not to please the capitalist, is something entirely irrelevant  to the matter. The consumption of food by a beast of burden does not become any less a necessary aspect of the production process because the beast enjoys what it eats." - 718
  5. "The reproduction of the working class implies at the same time the transmission and accumulation of skills from one generation to another." - 719
  6. "In reality, the worker belongs to capital before he has sold himself to the capitalist. His economic bondage is at once mediated through and concealed by, the periodic renewal of the act by which he sells himself, his change of masters, and the oscillations in the market-price of his labour." - 723-4
Chapter 24: The Transformation of Surplus-Value into Capital

- Capitalist production on a progressively increasing scale. The inversion which converts the property laws of commodity production into laws of capitalist appropriation

  1. "surplus-value can be transformed into capital only because the surplus product, whose value it is, already comprises the material components of a new quantity of capital." - 727
  2. "All capital needs to do is to incorporate this additional labour-power, annually supplied by the working class in the shape of labour-powers of all ages, with the additional means of production comprised in the annual product" - 727
  3. "the working class creates by the surplus labour of one year the capital destined to employ additional labour in the following year. And this is what is called creating  capital out of capital." - 729
  4. "The constant sale and purchase of labour-power is the form;the content is the constant appropriation by the capitalist, without equivalent, of a portion of the labour of others which has already been objectified, and his repeated exchange of this labour for a greater quantity of the living labour of others." - 730
- The political economists' erroneous conception of reproduction on an increasing scale

  1. "The classical economists are therefore quite right to maintain that the consumption of surplus product by productive, instead of unproductive, workers is a characteristic feature of the process of accumulation." - 736
  2. "The movements of the individual capitals and personal revenues cross and intermingle, and become lost in a general alternation of positions, i.e. in the circulation of society's wealth." - 737
- Division of surplus-value into capital and revenue. The abstinence theory

  1. "One part of the surplus-value is consumed by the capitalist as revenue, the other part is employed as capital, i.e. it is accumulated...the ratio of these parts determines the magnitude of accumulation." - 738
  2. "the development of capitalist production makes it necessary constantly to increase the amount of capital laid out in a given industrial undertaking, and competition subordinates every individual capitalist to the immanent laws of capitalist production as external and coercive laws. It compels him to keep extending his capital, so as to preserve it, and he can only extend it by means of progressive accumulation." - 739
  3. "Accumulation is the conquest of the world of social wealth." - 739
  4. "Accumulation for the sake of accumulation, production for the same of production: this was the formula in which classical economics expressed the historical mission of the bourgeoisie in the period of its domination." - 742
- The circumstances which, independently of the proportional division of surplus-value into capital and revenue, determine the extent of accumulation:

  1. the degree of exploitation of labour-power
  2. the productivity of labour
  3. the growing difference in amount between capital employed and capital consumed
  4. the magnitude of the capital advanced

Capital:Volume 1, Chapters 19-22 by Karl Marx

Chapter 19: The Transformation of the Value (and Respectively the Price) of Labour-Power into Wages
  1. "If demand and supply balance, the oscillation of prices ceases, all other circumstances remaining the same." - 678
  2. "As the value of labour is only an irrational expression for the value of labour-power, it follows of course that the value of labour must always be less than its value-product, for the capitalist always makes labour-power work longer than is necessary for the reproduction of its own value." -  679
  3. "the worker is paid after he has given his labour. In its function as a means of payment, money realizes, but only subsequently, the value or price of the article supplied" - 681
  4. "the capitalist...the only thing that interests him is the difference between the price of labour-power and the value which its function creates." - 682
Chapter 20: Time-Wages
  1. "The sale of labour-power, as will be remembered, always takes place for definite periods of time. The converted form in which the daily value, weekly value, etc. of labour-power is directly presented is hence that of time-wages" - 683
  2. nominal wages: "The sume of money which the worker receives for his daily or weekly labour...his wages estimated in value." - 683
  3. "The unit of measurement for time-wages, the price of the working hour, is the value of the day's labour-power divided by the number of hours in the average working day." - 685
  4. "here we come upon the origin of the sufferings which arise for the worker out of his being insufficiently employed. If the hour's wage is fixed in such a way that the capitalist [is]...only to pay wages for the hours during which he chooses to employ the worker, he can employ him for a shorter time than that which is originally the basis of the calculation of the wages for the hour." - 686
  5. "The capitalist can now wring from the worker a certain quantity of surplus-labour without allowing him the labour-time necessary for his own subsistence. He can annihilate all regularity of employment, and according to his own convenience, caprice, and the interest of the moment, make the most frightful over-work alternate with the relative or absolute cessation of work." - 686
  6. "The competition thus created between the workers allows the capitalist to force down the price of labour, while the fall in the price of labour allows him, on the other hand, to force up the hours of work still further." - 689
Chapter 21: Piece-Wages
  1. "Piece-wages are not in fact a direct expression of any relation of value. It is not, therefore, a question of measuring the value of the piece by the labour-time incorporated in it. It is rather the reverse: the labour the worker has expended must be measured by the number of pieces he has produced." - 694
  2. "Since the quality and intensity of the work are here controlled by the very form of the wage, superintendence of labour becomes to a great extent superfluous." - 695
Chapter 22: National Differences in Wages
  1. "In proportion as capitalist production is developed in a country, so in the same proportion, do the national intensity and productivity of labour there rise above the international level." - 702
  2. "experience shows that even if the level of wages more or less corresponds with the average intensity of labour, the relative price of labour (i.e. the price of labour in relation to the product) generally varies in the inverse direction." - 705

Capital: Volume 1, Chapters 16-18 by Karl Marx

Chapter 16: Absolute and Relative Surplus-Value

  1. absolute surplus-value, "the prolongation of the working day beyond the point at which the worker would have produced an exact equivalent for the value of his labour-power...forms the general foundation of the capitalist system, and the starting point for the production of relative surplus-value." - 645
  2. "A merely formal subsumption of labour under capital suffices for the production of absolute surplus-value." - 645
  3. "the capital-relation arises out of an economic soil that is the product of a long process of development. The existing productivity of labour, from which it proceeds as its basis, is a gift, not of nature, but of a history embracing thousands of centuries." - 647
Chapter 17: Changes of Magnitude in the Price of Labour-Power and in Surplus-Value

- The length of the working day and the intensity of labour constant; the productivity of labour variable

  1. "a working day of a given length always creates the same amount of value, no matter how the productivity of labour, and, with it, the mass of the product and the price of each single commodity produced may vary." - 656
  2. "the value of labour-power and surplus-value vary in opposite directions." - 656
  3. "Increase or diminution in surplus-value is always the consequence, and never the cause, of the corresponding diminution or increase in the value of labour-power." - 658
- The length of the working day and the productivity of labour constant; the intensity of labour variable

  1. "Here we have an increase in the number of products unaccompanied by a fall in their individual prices; as their number increases, so does the sum of their prices, whereas in the case of an increase in productivity, a given value is spread over a greater mass of products." - 661
- The productivity and intensity of labour constant; the length of the working day variable

  1. "Since the value-product in which a day of labour is embodied increases with the length of that day, it is evident that the surplus-value and the price of labour-power may simultaneously increase, either by equal or unequal quantities." - 663
  2. "When the working day is prolonged, the price of labour-power may fall below its value, although that price nominally remains unchanged, or even rises." - 664
- Simultaneous variations in the duration, productivity and intensity of labour

  1. "If the whole working day were to shrink to the length of its necessary component, surplus labour would vanish, something which is impossible under the regime of capital. Only the abolition of the capitalist form of production would permit the reduction of the working day to the necessary labour-time." - 667
  2. "The capitalist mode of production, while it enforces economy in each individual business, also begets, by its anarchic system of competition, the most outrageous squandering of labour-power and of the social means of production, not to mention the creation of a vast number of functions at present indispensable, but in themselves superfluous." - 667
Chapter 18: Different Formulae for the Rate of Surplus-Value

  1. surplus-value/value of labour-power = surplus labour/necessary labour = unpaid labour/paid labour
  2. "Capital, therefore, is not only the command over labour, as Adam Smith thought. It is essentially the command over unpaid labour. All surplus-value, whatever particular form (profit, interest or rent) it may subsequently crystallize into, is in substance the materialization of unpaid labour-time. The secret of the self-valorization of capital resolves itself into the fact that it has at its disposal a definite quantity of the unpaid labour of other people." - 672

Monday, November 14, 2011

Capital: Volume 1, Chapter 15 by Karl Marx

Chapter 15: Machinery and Large-Scale Industry

- The development of machinery
  1. manufacture "takes labour-power as its starting point"; large-scale industry, "instruments of labour are the starting point - 492
  2. 1735: "John Wyatt announced his spinning machine, and thereby started the industrial revolution" - 493
  3. machine: motor mechanism, transmitting mechanism, tool (working machine) - 494
  4. "From the moment that the tool proper is taken from man and fitted into a mechanism, a machine takes the place of a mere implement" - 495
  5. "A real machine system...Here we have again the co-operation by division of labour which is peculiar to manufacture, but now it appears as a combination of machines with specific functions. The tools peculiar to various specialized workers...are now transformed into the tools of specialized machines, each machine forming a special organ, with a special function in the combined mechanism." - 501
  6. "As soon as a machine executes, without man's help, all the movements required to elaborate the raw material, and needs only supplementary assistance from the worker, we have an automatic system of machinery, capable of constant improvement in its details." - 503
  7. "The transformation of the mode of production in one sphere of industry necessitates a similar transformation in other spheres...the revolution in the modes of production of industry and agriculture made necessary a revolution in the general conditions of the social process of production, i.e. in the means of communication and transport." - 505-6
  8. "The most essential condition for the production of machines by machines was a prime mover capable of exerting any amount of force, while retaining perfect control." - 506
  9. "As machinery, the instrument of labour assumes a material mode of existence which necessitates the replacement of human force by natural forces, and the replacement of the rule of thumb by the conscious application of natural science." - 508
- The value transferred by the machinery to the product
  1. "Science, generally speaking, costs the capitalist nothing, a fact that by no means prevents him from exploiting it." - 508, notes
  2. "Given the rate at which machinery transfers its value to the product, the amount of value so transferred depends on the total value of the machinery. The less labour it contains, the less value it contributes to the product. The less value it gives up, the more productive it is, and the more its services approach those rendered by natural forces." - 512
- The most immediate effects of machine production on the worker
  1. "To purchase the labour-power of a family of four may perhaps cost more than it formerly did to purchase the labour-power of the head of the family, but, in return, four days' labour takes the place of one day's, and the price falls in proportion to the excess of the surplus labour of four over the surplus labour of one." - 518
  2. "The instrument of labour now becomes an industrial form of perpetual motion. It would go on producing forever, if it did not come up against certain natural limits in the shape of the weak bodies and the strong wills of its human assistants." - 526
  3. "Hence that remarkable phenomenon in the history of modern industry, that machinery sweeps away every moral and natural restriction on the length of the working day. Hence too the economic paradox that the most powerful instrument for reducing labour-time suffers a dialectical inversion and becomes the most unfailing means for turning the whole lifetime of the worker and his family into labour-time at capital's disposal for its own valorization." - 532, emphasis mine
  4. "machinery becomes in the hands of capital the objective means, systematically employed, for squeezing out more labour in a given time. This occurs in two ways: the speed of the machines is increased, and the same worker receives a greater quantity of machinery to supervise or operate." - 536
  5. "Capital's tendency, as soon as a prolongation of the hours of labour is once for all forbidden, is to compensate for this by systematically raising the intensity of labour, and converting every improvement in machinery into a more perfect means for soaking up labour-power." - 542
- The factory
  1. "in place of the hierarchy of specialized workers that characterizes manufacture, there appears, in the automatic factory, a tendency to equalize and reduce to an identical level every kind of work that has to be done by the minders of the machines" - 545
  2. "The lifelong specialty of handling the same tool now becomes the lifelong specialty of serving the same machine. Machinery is misused in order to transform the worker, from his very childhood, into a part of a specialized machine." - 547
  3. "In  handicrafts and manufacture, the worker makes use of a tool, in the factory, the machine makes use of him." - 548
  4. "Owing to its conversion into an automation, the instrument of labour confronts the worker during the labour process in the shape of capital, dead labour, which dominates and soaks up living labour-power." - 548
- The struggle between worker and machine
  1. "It took both time and experience before the workers learnt to distinguish between machinery and its employment by capital, and therefore to transfer their attacks from the material instruments of production to the form of society which utilizes those instruments." - 554-5
  2. "The instrument of labour, when it takes the form of a machine, immediately becomes a competitor of the worker himself...The whole system of capitalist production is based on the worker's sale of his labour-power as a commodity...When it becomes the job of the machine to handle this tool, the use-value of the worker's labour-power vanishes, and with it its exchange-value. The worker becomes unsaleable, like paper money thrown out of currency by legal enactment." - 557
-The compensation theory, with regard to the workers displaced by machinery
  1. "the workers, when driven out of the workshop by the machinery, are thrown onto the labour-market. Their presence in the labour-market increases the number of labour-powers which are at the disposal of capitalist exploitation." - 567
  2. "if the total quantity of the article produced by machinery is equal to the total quantity of the article produced by a handicraft or by manufacture, and now made by machinery, then total labour expended is diminished." - 570
  3. "The immediate result of machinery is to augment surplus-value and the mass of products in which surplus-value is embodied. It also increases the quantity of substances for the capitalists and their dependents to consume, and therefor the size of these social strata themselves. Their growing wealth, and the relatively diminished number of workers required to produce the means of subsistence, begets both new luxury requirements and the means of satisfying them." - 572-3
  4. "the extraordinary increase in the productivity of large-scale industry, accompanied as it is by both a more intensive and a more extensive exploitation of labour-power in all other spheres of productions, permits a larger and larger part of the working class to be employed unproductively. Hence it is possible to reproduce the ancient domestic slaves, on a constantly extending scale, under the name of a servant class." - 574
- Repulsion and attraction of workers through the development of machine production
  1. "in spite of the mass of workers actually driven out and virtually replaced by machinery...their numbers grow through the building of more factories or the extension of old factories in a given industry." - 577
  2. "we have already seen that every advance in the use of machinery entails an increase in the constant component of capital...and a decrease in its variable component [labour]...This constant variation is however equally constantly interrupted by periods of rest, during which there is a merely quantitative extension of factories on the existing technical basis." - 578
  3. "as soon as the general conditions of production appropriate to large-scale industry have been established, this mode of production acquires an elasticity, a capacity for sudden extension by leaps and bounds, which comes up against no barriers but those presented by the availability of raw materials and the extent of sales outlets." - 579
  4. life of industry: moderate activity --> prosperity --> over-production --> crisis --> stagnation - 580
- The revolutionary impact of large-scale industry on manufacture, handicrafts and domestic industry
  1. "In the so-called domestic industries this exploitation is still more shameless than in modern manufacture, because the workers' power of resistance declines with their dispersal; because a whole series of plundering parasites insinuate themselves between the actual employer and the worker he employs" - 591
  2. "The children generally tire and become as restless as birds towards the end of their long detention at an occupation that is monotonous, eye-straining, and exhausting from the uniformity in the posture of the body. Their work is like slavery." - 597, Children's Employment Commission, Second Report (1864)
- The health and education clauses of the factory acts
  1. "the capitalist mode of production, by its very nature, excludes all rational improvement beyond a certain point." - 612
  2. "the germ of the education of the future is present in the factory system; this education will, in the case of every child over a given age, combine productive labour with instruction and gymnastics, not only as one of the methods of adding to the efficiency of production, but as the only method of producing fully developed human beings." - 614
  3. "Large-scale industry tore aside the veil that concealed from men their own social process of production and turned the various spontaneously divided branches of production into riddles" - 616
  4. "Modern industry never views or treats the existing form of a production process as the definitive one. Its technical basis is therefore revolutionary, whereas all earlier modes of production were essentially conservative." - 617
  5. "the partially developed individual, who is merely the bearer of one specialized social function, must be replaced by the totally developed individual, for whom the different social functions are different modes of activity he takes up in turn." - 618
  6. from the Report from the Select Committee on Mines (1866): "Do you not think that the mine-owner also suffers loss from an explosion?...Are not you workmen in Lancashire able to take care of your own interests without calling in the Government to help you?" "No." - 634
  7. "the result of the immense impetus given to technical improvement by the limitation and regulation of the working day is to increase the anarchy and the proneness to catastrophe of capitalist production as a whole, the intensity of labour, and the competition of machinery with the worker. By the destruction of small-scale and domestic industries it destroys the last resorts of the 'redundant population', thereby removing what was previously a safety-valve for the whole social mechanism." - 635
- Large-scale industry and agriculture
  1. "Capitalist production collects the population together in great centres, and causes the urban population to achieve an ever-growing preponderance. This has two results. On the one hand it concentrates the historical motive power of society; on the other hand, it disturbs the metabolic interaction between men and the earth, i.e. it prevents the return to the soil of its constituent elements consumed by man in the form of food and clothing; hence it hinders the operation of the eternal natural condition for the lasting fertility of the soil. Thus it destroys at the same time the physical health of the urban worker, and the intellectual life of the rural worker." - 637
  2. "all progress in capitalist agriculture is a progress in the art, not only of robbing the worker, but of robbing the soil; all progress in increasing  the fertility of the soil for a given time is a progress towards ruining the more long lasting sources of that fertility." - 638