Saturday, October 29, 2011

Capital: Volume 1, Chapters 12-13 by Karl Marx

Chapter 12: The Concept of Relative Surplus-Value

  1. "The surplus labour would in this case be prolonged only by transgressing its normal limits, its domain would be extended only by a usurpation of part of the domain of necessary labour-time." - 431
  2. productivity, "when surplus-value has to be produced by the conversion of necessary labour time into surplus labour, it by no means suffices for capital to take over the labour process in its given or historically transmitted shape, and then simply to prolong its duration. The technical and social conditions of the process and consequently the mode of production itself must be revolutionized before the productivity of labour can be increased. Then, with the increase in the productivity of labour, the value of labour-power will fall, and the portion of the working day necessary for the reproduction of that value will be shortened." - 432
  3. "There is a motive for each individual capitalist to cheapen his commodities by increasing the productivity of labour." - 435
  4. "this extra surplus-value vanishes as soon as the new method of production is generalized, for then the difference between the individual value of the cheapened commodity and its social value vanishes." - 436
  5. relative surplus-value and productivity are directly proportional - 436
Chapter 13: Co-operation
  1. "Each individual man's day is an aliquot part of the collective working day, no matter whether the twelve men help each other in their work, or whether the connection between their operations consists merely in the fact that the men are all working for the same capitalist...The law of valorization therefore comes fully into its own for the individual producer only when he produces as a capitalist and employs a number of workers simultaneously" - 441
  2. "Economy in the use of the means of production has to be considered from two points of so far as it cheapens commodities, and thereby brings about a fall in the value of so far as it alters the ratio of surplus-value to the total capital advanced" - 442
  3. "the social productive power of labour, or the productive power of social labour. This power arises from co-operation itself. When the worker co-operates in a planned way with others, he strips off the fetters of his individuality, and develops the capabilities of his species." - 447
  4. direction of labour-power: "The work of directing, superintending and adjusting becomes one of the functions of capital, from the moment that the labour under capital's control becomes the means of production extend, the necessity increases for some effective control over the proper application of them, because they confront the wage-labourer as the property of another...the co-operation of wage-labourers is entirely brought about by the capital that employs them. Their unification into one single productive body, and the establishment of a connection between their individual functions, lies outside their competence." - 449
  5. "Being independent of each other, the workers are isolated. They enter into relations with the capitalist, but not with each other. Their co-operation only begins with the labour process, but by then they have ceased to belong to themselves...As co-operators, as members of a working organism, they merely form a particular mode of existence of capital. Hence the productive power developed by the worker socially is the productive power of capital." - 451

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